Microsoft company sample paper/placement paper 2010 |Microsoft Interview Question & answer

Today i am provide you a sample paper/placement paper of Microsoft company  .As every body knows Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKEX: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of software products for computing devices Headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, its most profitable products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software. Those candidates who want to get placed in the Microsoft company must prepare themselves for their placement papers and Interview questions.So see this question paper.

 

Question paper:

 

Computer question:

What are two methods of retrieving SQL?

What cursor type do you use to retrieve multiple recordsets?

What action do you have to perform before retrieving data from the next result set of a stored procedure?

What is the basic form of a SQL statement to read data out of a table?

What structure can you have the database make to speed up table reads?

What is a ?join"?

What is a ?constraint"?

What is a ?primary key"?

What is a ?functional dependency"? How does it relate to database table design?

What is a ?trigger"?

What is ?index covering? of a query?

What is a SQL view?

  Second paper:

1. What?s the difference between a linked list and an array?

2. Implement a linked list. Why did you pick the method you did?

3. Implement an algorithm to sort a linked list. Why did you pick the

4. method you did? Now do it in O(n) time.

5. Describe advantages and disadvantages of the various stock sorting algorithms.

6. Implement an algorithm to reverse a linked list. Now do it without recursion.

7. Implement an algorithm to insert a node into a circular linked list without traversing it.

8. Implement an algorithm to sort an array. Why did you pick the method you did?

9. Implement an algorithm to do wild card string matching.

10. Implement strstr() (or some other string library function).

11. Reverse a string. Optimize for speed. Optimize for space.

12. Reverse the words in a sentence, i.e. ?My name is Chris? becomes ?Chris is name My.? Optimize for speed. Optimize for space.

13. Find a substring. Optimize for speed. Optimize for space.

14. Compare two strings using O(n) time with constant space.

14. Suppose you have an array of 1001 integers. The integers are in random order, but you know each of the integers is between 1 and 1000 (inclusive). In addition, each number appears only once in the array, except for one number, which occurs twice. Assume that you can access each element of the array only once. Describe an algorithm to find the repeated number. If you used auxiliary storage in your algorithm, can you find an algorithm that does not require it? 

16. Count the number of set bits in a number. Now optimize for speed. Now optimize for size.

17. Multiple by 8 without using multiplication or addition. Now do the same with 7.

18. Add numbers in base n (not any of the popular ones like 10, 16, 8 or 2 ? I hear that Charles Simonyi, the inventor of Hungarian Notation, favors -2 when asking this question).

19. Write routines to read and write a bounded buffer.

20. Write routines to manage a heap using an existing array.

21. Implement an algorithm to take an array and return one with only unique elements in it.

22. Implement an algorithm that takes two strings as input, and returns the intersection of the two, with each letter represented at most once. Now speed it up. Now test it.

23. Implement an algorithm to print out all files below a given root node.

24. Given that you are receiving samples from an instrument at a constant rate, and you have constant storage space, how would you design a storage algorithm that would allow me to get a representative readout of data, no matter when I looked at it? In other words, representative of the behavior of the system to date. 

25. How would you find a cycle in a linked list?

26. Give me an algorithm to shuffle a deck of cards, given that the cards are stored in an array of ints.

27. The following asm block performs a common math function, what is it?

cwd     xor     ax,     dx

sub     ax,     dx

 

28. I/O completion ports are communictaions ports which take handles to files, sockets, or any other I/O. When a Read or Write is submitted to them, they cache the data (if necessary), and attempt to take the request to completion. Upon error or completion, they call a user-supplied function to let the users application know that that particular request has completed. They work asynchronously, and can process an unlimited number of simultaneous requests.

29. Design the implementation and thread models for I/O completion ports.

30. Remember to take into account multi-processor machines.

31. Write a function that takes in a string parameter and checks to see whether or not it is an integer, and if it is then return the integer value.

32. Write a function to print all of the permutations of a string.

33. Implement malloc.

34. Write a function to print the Fibonacci numbers.

35. Write a function to copy two strings, A and B. The last few bytes of string A overlap the first few bytes of string B.

36. How would you write qsort?

37. How would you print out the data in a binary tree, level by level, starting at the top?

Microsoft Interview Questions

38. The following are actual questions from actual interviews conducted by Microsoft employees on the main campus. Microsoft Consultants are sometimes allowed to have a life, so questions asked of them during interviews don?t really count and aren?t listed.

38. The questions tend to follow some basic themes:

Riddles
Algorithms
Applications
Thinkers
Riddles

39. Why is a manhole cover round?

40. How many cars are there in the USA? (A popular variant is ?How many gas stations are there in the USA?")

41. How many manhole covers are there in the USA?

42. You?ve got someone working for you for seven days and a gold bar to pay them. The gold bar is segmented into seven connected pieces. You must give them a piece of gold at the end of every day. If you are only allowed to make two breaks in the gold bar, how do you pay your worker?

43. One train leaves Los Angeles at 15mph heading for New York. Another train leaves from New York at 20mph heading for Los Angeles on the same track. If a bird, flying at 25mph, leaves from Los Angeles at the same time as the train and flies back and forth between the two trains until they collide, how far will the bird have traveled?

44. Imagine a disk spinning like a record player turn table. Half of the disk is black and the other is white. Assume you have an unlimited number of color sensors. How many sensors would you have to place around the disk to determine the direction the disk is spinning? Where would they be placed?

45. Imagine an analog clock set to 12 o?clock. Note that the hour and minute hands overlap. How many times each day do both the hour and minute hands overlap? How would you determine the exact times of the day that this occurs?

46. You have two jars, 50 red marbles and 50 blue marbles. A jar will be picked at random, and then a marble will be picked from the jar. Placing all of the marbles in the jars, how can you maximize the chances of a red marble being picked? What are the exact odds of getting a red marble using your scheme?

47. Pairs of primes separated by a single number are called prime pairs. Examples are 17 and 19. Prove that the number between a prime pair is always divisible by 6 (assuming both numbers in the pair are greater than

48. . Now prove that there are no ?prime triples.? There is a room with a door (closed) and three light bulbs. Outside the room there are three switches, connected to the bulbs. You may manipulate the switches as you wish, but once you open the door you can?t change them. Identify each switch with its bulb. Suppose you had 8 billiard balls, and one of them was slightly heavier, but the only way to tell was by putting it on a scale against another. What?s the fewest number of times you?d have to use the scale to find the heavier ball?

49. Imagine you are standing in front of a mirror, facing it. Raise your left hand. Raise your right hand. Look at your reflection. When you raise your left hand your reflection raises what appears to be his right hand. But when you tilt your head up, your reflection does too, and does not appear to tilt his/her head down. Why is it that the mirror appears to reverse left and right, but not up and down?

50. You have 4 jars of pills. Each pill is a certain weight, except for contaminated pills contained in one jar, where each pill is weight + 1. How could you tell which jar had the contaminated pills in just one measurement?

51. The SF Chronicle has a word game where all the letters are scrambled up and you have to figure out what the word is. Imagine that a scrambled word is 5 characters long:

52. How many possible solutions are there?

53. What if we know which 5 letters are being used?

Develop an algorithm to solve the word.

54. There are 4 women who want to cross a bridge. They all begin on the same side. You have 17 minutes to get all of them across to the other side. It is night. There is one flashlight. A maximum of two people can cross at one time. Any party who crosses, either 1 or 2 people, must have the flashlight with them. The flashlight must be walked back and forth, it cannot be thrown, etc. Each woman walks at a different speed. A pair must walk together at the rate of the slower woman?s pace.

Woman 1: 1 minute to cross
Woman 2: 2 minutes to cross
Woman 3: 5 minutes to cross
Woman 4: 10 minutes to cross

55. For example if Woman 1 and Woman 4 walk across first, 10 minutes have elapsed when they get to the other side of the bridge. If Woman 4 then returns with the flashlight, a total of 20 minutes have passed and you have failed the mission. What is the order required to get all women across in 17 minutes? Now, what?s the other way?

56. If you had an infinite supply of water and a 5 quart and 3 quart pail, how would you measure exactly 4 quarts?

57. You have a bucket of jelly beans. Some are red, some are blue, and some green. With your eyes closed, pick out 2 of a like color.

58. How many do you have to grab to be sure you have 2 of the same?

59. If you have two buckets, one with red paint and the other with blue paint, and you take one cup from the blue bucket and poor it into the red bucket. Then you take one cup from the red bucket and poor it into the blue bucket.

60. Which bucket has the highest ratio between red and blue? Prove it mathematically.

 

The following are actual questions from actual interviews conducted by Microsoft employees on the main campus.

Microsoft Consultants are sometimes allowed to have a life, so questions asked of them during interviews don’t really count and aren’t listed. The questions tend to follow some basic themes: Riddles.

Algorithms

Applications

Thinkers

Riddles

Why is a manhole cover round?

How many cars are there in the USA? (A popular variant is "How many gas stations are there in the USA?")

How many manhole covers are there in the USA?

You’ve got someone working for you for seven days and a gold bar to pay them. The gold bar is segmented into seven connected pieces. You must give them a piece of gold at the end of every day. If you are only allowed to make two breaks in the gold bar, how do you pay your worker?

One train leaves Los Angeles at 15mph heading for New York. Another train leaves from New York at 20mph heading for Los Angeles on the same track. If a bird, flying at 25mph, leaves from Los Angeles at the same time as the train and flies back and forth between the two trains until they collide, how far will the bird have traveled?

Imagine a disk spinning like a record player turn table. Half of the disk is black and the other is white. Assume you have an unlimited number of color sensors. How many sensors would you have to place around the disk to determine the direction the disk is spinning? Where would they be placed?

Imagine an analog clock set to 12 o’clock. Note that the hour and minute hands overlap. How many times each day do both the hour and minute hands overlap? How would you determine the exact times of the day that this occurs?

You have two jars, 50 red marbles and 50 blue marbles. A jar will be picked at random, and then a marble will be picked from the jar. Placing all of the marbles in the jars, how can you maximize the chances of a red marble being picked? What are the exact odds of getting a red marble using your scheme?

Pairs of primes separated by a single number are called prime pairs.
Examples are 17 and 19.
Prove that the number between a prime pair is always divisible by 6 (assuming both numbers in the pair are greater than 6). Now prove that there are no ‘prime triples.’

There is a room with a door (closed) and three light bulbs. Outside the room there are three switches, connected to the bulbs. You may manipulate the switches as you wish, but once you open the door you can’t change them. Identify each switch with its bulb.

Suppose you had 8 billiard balls, and one of them was slightly heavier, but the only way to tell was by putting it on a scale against another. What’s the fewest number of times you’d have to use the scale to find the heavier ball?

Imagine you are standing in front of a mirror, facing it. Raise your left hand. Raise your right hand. Look at your reflection. When you raise your left hand your reflection raises what appears to be his right hand. But when you tilt your head up, your reflection does too, and does not appear to tilt his/her head down. Why is it that the mirror appears to reverse left and right, but not up and down?

You have 4 jars of pills. Each pill is a certain weight, except for contaminated pills contained in one jar, where each pill is weight + 1. How could you tell which jar had the contaminated pills in just one measurement?

The SF Chronicle has a word game where all the letters are scrambled up and you have to figure out what the word is. Imagine that a scrambled word is 5 characters long: How many possible solutions are there? What if we know which 5 letters are being used?

Develop an algorithm to solve the word.
There are 4 women who want to cross a bridge. They all begin on the same side. You have 17 minutes to get all of them across to the other side. It is night. There is one flashlight. A maximum of two people can cross at one time. Any party who crosses, either 1 or 2 people, must have the flashlight with them. The flashlight must be walked back and forth, it cannot be thrown, etc. Each woman walks at a different speed. A pair must walk together at the rate of the slower woman’s pace.

Woman 1: 1 minute to cross
Woman 2: 2 minutes to cross
Woman 3: 5 minutes to cross
Woman 4: 10 minutes to cross

For example if Woman 1 and Woman 4 walk across first, 10 minutes have elapsed when they get to the other side of the bridge. If Woman 4 then returns with the flashlight, a total of 20 minutes have passed and you have failed the mission. What is the order required to get all women across in 17 minutes? Now, what’s the other way?

If you had an infinite supply of water and a 5 quart and 3 quart pail, how would you measure exactly 4 quarts?

You have a bucket of jelly beans. Some are red, some are blue, and some green. With your eyes closed, pick out 2 of a like color. How many do you have to grab to be sure you have 2 of the same?

If you have two buckets, one with red paint and the other with blue paint, and you take one cup from the blue bucket and poor it into the red bucket. Then you take one cup from the red bucket and poor it into the blue bucket. Which bucket has the highest ratio between red and blue? Prove it mathematically.

 Microsoft SQL Server
Interview Questions And Answers

You are considering consolidating a number of your existing SQL Servers onto a new, large SQL Server 2005 server. You have 3 SQL Server 6.5 servers, 6 SQL Server 7.0 servers, and 16 SQL Server 2005 servers. You cannot make any application changes, but you can size a large SQL Server 2005 server to handle the disk, memory, and CPU needs of the existing servers as well as set compatibility modes. How many of these servers can you consolidate?
25
In SQL Server 2005, you can handle a large number of transactions, which makes it a good choice for consolidating servers. It includes compatibility modes for SQL Server 6, 6.5, 7 and 2000. Therefore you can consolidate all the servers, 25 of them, onto the new server.

To maintain the best performance of your SQL Server 2005 databases, how should you deploy encryption technologies?
Encrypt data with a symmetric key and secure all keys with asymmetric keys.
For performance reasons, you should encrypt data using a symmetric key and secure that key with an asymmetric key.

In SQL Server 2005, which network protocols use endpoints?
All of the above
All communication points with SQL Server using network protocols use an endpoint. SQL Server creates defaults for each protocol that you enable.

You have a SQL Server 2005 cluster and need to add anti-virus software as per your corporate standards. What should you exclude from scans?
Log and data files for your databases as well as the Quorum drive and the backup folders.
Anti-virus programs can exist on the same server as SQL Server without an issue if you exclude certain items. The database data and log files, backup files and folders, the quorum drive for clusters, temporary replication files, the SQL Server log files, and Log Shipping folders/files. You do not need to exclude that SQL Server executables and probably do not want to so that they are protected.
Questions to ask a SQL Server database developer applicant

Can you give me an overview of some of the database objects available for use in SQL Server 2000?
You are looking for objects such as: tables, views, user-defined functions, and stored procedures; it’s even better if they mention additional objects such as triggers. It’s not a good sign if an applicant cannot answer this basic question.

What is an index? What types of indexes are available in SQL Server 2000?
Any experienced database developer should be able to answer this question with ease. Some of the less-experienced developers will be able to answer it, but with a little less clarity.

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In its most simple terms, an index is a data structure used to provide quick access to data in a database table or view. In SQL Server, they come in two flavors: clustered and non-clustered. Clustered indexes store the data at the leaf level of the index. This means that whichever field(s) in your table are included in the clustered index, they will be stored in an orderly fashion in the table. Because of this sorting, you can only have one clustered index per table. Non-clustered indexes contain a row identifier at the leaf level of the index. This row identifier is a pointer to a location of the data on the disk. This allows you to have more than one non-clustered index per table.

What does NULL mean?
The value NULL is a very tricky subject in the database world, so don’t be surprised if several applicants trip up on this question.

The value NULL means UNKNOWN; it does not mean ” (empty string). Assuming ANSI_NULLS are on in your SQL Server database, which they are by default, any comparison to the value NULL will yield the value NULL. You cannot compare any value with an UNKNOWN value and logically expect to get an answer. You must use the IS NULL operator instead.

What is a primary key? What is a foreign key?
A primary key is the field(s) in a table that uniquely defines the row in the table; the values in the primary key are always unique. A foreign key is a constraint that establishes a relationship between two tables. This relationship typically involves the primary key field(s) from one table with an adjoining set of field(s) in another table (although it could be the same table). The adjoining field(s) is the foreign key.

What are triggers? What are the different types of triggers in SQL Server 2000?
It’s very beneficial for a potential database developer to know the types of triggers available, and how to implement them.

A trigger is a specialized type of stored procedure that is bound to a table or view in SQL Server 2000. In SQL Server 2000, there are INSTEAD-OF triggers and AFTER triggers. INSTEAD-OF triggers are procedures that execute in place of a Data Manipulation Language (DML) statement on a table. For example, if I have an INSTEAD-OF-UPDATE trigger on TableA, and I execute an update statement on that table, the code in the INSTEAD-OF-UPDATE trigger will execute instead of the update statement that I executed.

An AFTER trigger executes after a DML statement has taken place in the database. These types of triggers are very handy for auditing data changes that have occurred in your database tables.

How can you ensure that a table named TableB with a field named Fld1 will only have those values in the Fld1 field that are also in the table named TableA with a field named Fld1?
This relationship related question has two potential answers. The first answer (and the one that you want to hear) is the use of foreign key constraints. A foreign key constraint is used to maintain referential integrity. It is used to ensure that a field in a table will only hold values that are already defined in another field in a different (or the same) table. That field is the candidate key (usually a primary key of the other table).

The other option is the use of triggers. Triggers can be used to ensure the same effect of constraints in a roundabout way, but it is much more difficult to set up and maintain, and the performance is typically worse. Because of this, Microsoft recommends that developers use foreign key constraints instead of triggers for maintaining referential integrity.

What is a performance consideration of having too many indexes on a production online transaction processing (OLTP) table?
You are looking for the applicant to make some reference regarding data manipulations. The more indexes on a table, the more time it takes for the database engine to update, insert, or delete data, as the indexes all have to be maintained as the data manipulation occurs.

What can be used to ensure that a field in a table only accepts a certain range of values?
This question can be answered a couple of different ways, but only one answer is a "good" one. The answer you want to hear is a Check constraint, which is defined on a database table that limits the values entered into that column. These constraints are relatively easy to create, and they are the recommended type for enforcing domain integrity in SQL Server.

Triggers can also be used to restrict the values accepted in a field in a database table, but this solution requires the trigger to be defined on the table, which can hinder performance in certain situations. For this reason, Microsoft recommends Check constraints over all other methods for restricting domain integrity.

What is the difference between a return parameter and an OUTPUT parameter?
If the applicant is able to answer this question correctly, the odds are good that they have some experience working with stored procedures.
A return parameter is always returned by a stored procedure, and it is meant to indicate the success or failure of the stored procedure. The return parameter is always an INT data type.
An OUTPUT parameter is designated specifically by the developer, and it can return other types of data, such as characters and numeric values. (There are some limitations on the data types that can be used as output parameters.) You can use multiple OUTPUT parameters in a stored procedure, whereas you can only use one return parameter.

What is a correlated sub-query? How can these queries be useful?
The more seasoned developer will be able to accurately describe this type of query. A correlated sub-query is a special type of query containing a sub-query. The sub-query contained in the query actually requests values from the outside query, creating a situation similar to a loop. You can find a more detailed description as to how these special types of queries work in this article.

 Microsoft SQL Server
Interview Questions And Answers

What What does the term ACID refer to?
An acronym that describes concurrency support in a database
The answer is an acronym that describes concurrency support in a database. ACID is an acronym for the following four terms: * Atomicity – Every operation within a transaction is treated as a singular operation; either all of its data modifications are performed, or none of them is performed.
* Consistency – Once the transaction is completed, the system must be left in a consistent state.
* Isolation – It means that the operations within a transaction must be suitably isolated from other transactions. In other words, no other transactions should see data in the intermediate state, within the transaction, until it is finalized. This is done by using locks.
* Durability – Once a transaction is competed, all changes must be persisted as requested. The modifications should persist in total even in the event of a system failure.

What does this return?
SELECT USER_NAME() — Returns Andy
EXECUTE AS TechPreparation
GO
EXECUTE AS Steve
GO
REVERT
GO
SELECT USER_NAME()
TechPreparation
The execution context switches can be nested, so changing to TechPreparation, then Steve, then issuing a Revert will return you to the context of TechPreparation. This works in the same manner as a stack.

In building a PDF report in Reporting Services 2005, images that are originally stored in jpg format are rendered in jpg format. What format are images rendered in if they were stored originally in another format?
png
Images stored originally in formats other than jpg are rendered in png format.

What does the tablediff utility do?
This utility will report the differences in data between two tables.
This utility will report the data differences between two tables. They must be alike in structure and give back the T-SQL to bring the data in the tables to be the same for most datatypes.

Which severity levels of errors can be corrected by a user (as opposed to those that an administrator or Microsoft must work to fix.)
11-16
Severity levels 11-16 are correctable by users. Below 11, these are informational warnings and not raised as system errors. Errors above 16 must have an administrator or Microsoft correct.

What is the granularity in seconds of the timestamp datatype?
The timestamp datatype does not store time values.
The answer is the timestamp datatype does not store time values. The better name for this datatype is rowversion, and it is actually a database-wide unique varbinary value. When you have a rowversion column in a table, the value of the rowversion column changes for each modification to each row. The value in the rowversion column is guaranteed to be unique across all tables in the datatype.

You are setting up the backup scheme for your SQL Server 2005 server and want to setup nightly full backups and hourly log backups in the Maintenance Plans subsystem. How many plans must you setup?
2
Since you have two separate schedules for the maintenance operations, you will need to have two separate plans to handle this need. Each plan can only be executed on one schedule, so one is needed for a single daily execution, the nightly full backups, and another for the hourly log backups.

You have installed one new assembly on your SQL Server 2005 server and are wondering if it is being used on the production server. How can you easily monitor to see if this assembly is being used?
You can monitor the Assembly Load event in a trace.
While you could scan trace results for the names of functions and procedures using the assembly, it is possible that you may not know all the places the assembly is being called from. There is a CLR Load event class that will capture an event when a CLR class is executed.

You wish to ensure you can recover your SQL Server 2005 database to a point in time if necessary. Which recovery models can you use?
Full
Only the Full recovery model supports point in time restoration of your database.

Does a root element in an XML document necessarily contain all the content for a well-formed document?
Yes
By definition, the root element is required in a well-formed XML document and it contains all other content nested inside it.

Which of the following datatypes can be represented in a SQL_VARIANT datatype?
None of the above.
The SQL Variant type can store all datatypes except varchar(max), varbinary(max), xml, text, ntext, rowversion/timestamp (thought the data of a rowversion can be stored in a binary(8), which can be stored in a sql_variant) and sql_variant (it may seem strange that you can?t store a variant in a variant, but all this is saying is that the sql_variant data type doesn?t actually exist as such?SQL Server chooses the best type of storage to store the value you give to it).

What’s the difference between a server login and a database user?
A server login connects an account to the server. A database user the link from the server login to a defined database .
You need to create a server login using CREATE LOGIN before you can then link it to a database using a database user with CREATE USER. The server login logs into the server and grants access to any server wide permissions. The server login is then mapped to a database user for access to database objects.

For regulatory reasons, you must maintain an exact text copy of your XML documents in your SQL Server 2005 database. What datatype of storage should you choose?
varchar(max)
The XML data type changes the representation of your XML document into an internal, optimized version that has all the content, but may not maintain the original text. The varchar(max) or nvarchar(max) represenations should be used in this case.

What is a bookmark lookup?
An operation where the row in the heap or clustered index is found from the bookmark in the index.
A bookmark ID is stored in an index and points back to the actual row in the heap or clustered index of the table. The lookup operation occurs when an index satisfies a search and the actual row is retrieved from the table.

Yesterday’s QOD How are comments denoted in an XML document?
With the <!– and –> markers.
Comments in an XML document are denoted just as they are in HTML with the markers.

How secure are encrypted stored procedures, triggers and views?
They are not really secure, that are only obfusticated. There are tools that you can use to get at the code.
The code itself is just obfusticated. However, you cannot edit the code, the stored procedure or view would have to be dropped and re-created. By combing this fact with a DDL trigger that executes on object creation you can tell when it has been modified.

You have created a new assembly and want to test it on SQL Server 2005. You install the developer edition with defaults on your workstation and create the assembly as a sysadmin. You then write a function to use this assembly, but it does not work. What could be the problem?
The CLR environment needs to be enabled.
By default on SQL Server 2005, the CLR runtime environment, which is what executes the .NET assemblies, is not enabled. You need to execute the following code to enable it:

The Service Broker operates on messages in which fashion?
Like a queue, first in, first out.
Messages transferred in Service Broker work in a queue fashion with the first message being sent being the first processed.

You have a user that agrees to take over some of the database administration for your SQL Server 2005. They will be in charge of granting access to one particular database used by the time card application for server logins. What security role should you assign them?
db_accessadmin
This user will not add logins, but rather grant database level access for existing logins, therefore the minimum role they need is the db_accessadmin fixed database role. This allows them the ability to add access for Windows logins, Windows group logins, or SQL Server logins.

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