Here are list of **Physics Formulae (Time, Speed, Mass,Force, Heat,Acceleration ,etc)** commonly appearing in **high-school and Inter /college introductory physics courses**.Learning physics is all about applying concepts to solve problems. This list provides a comprehensive physics formulas so you can easily learn these formulas.

**Acceleration:**

** It is defined as the rate of change of velocity.**

**Acceleration due to gravity:**

**Angular Displacement:**

**Angular momentum or moment of momentum L:**

**Angular velocity:**

**Coefficient of Friction:**

**Coefficient of Thermal conductivity k0 **

**Force:**

Force =mass ´ acceleration = m ´ a

F = (M) ´(LT-2) = (MLT-2)

So, dimension of mass is 1 and that of length is +1and that of time is –2 in force.

**Gravitational constant:**

According to Newton universal law of gravitation

**Heat:**

Heat is a form of energy.

Q = [ML2T-2]

**Impulse: **

**Kinetic Energy (K.E.):**

**Latent Heat:**

Heat absorbed per unit mass during changed of state.

**Power:**

**Pressure:**

**Speed:**

**Stress : =**

**Work of energy:**

Work = force × displacement = F × s

W =(MLT-2) × (L) = (ML2T-2)

### MASS:

**MEASUREMENTS UNITS – MASS**

Mass (kilogram): The kilogram is the unit of mass. It is equal to the mass of the International prototype of the kilogram (a platinum-iridium alloy cylinder) kept at BIPM, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres, Paris. It consists of an alloy of 90 % platinum 10 % iridium, and was made in 1879 by George Matthey, of Johnson Matthey, in the form of a cylinder, 39 mm high and 39 mm diameter. It is stored at atmospheric pressure in a specially designed triple bell-jar.

Mass is denoted by kg

For all practical purposes Conventional Mass is related to Mass via the following equation:

where:

Mc is the conventional mass value

M is the mass value ** is the density of the test weight material in kg·m-3**

**Units of mass**

There have historically been four different English systems of mass: Tower weight, Troy weight, avoirdupois weight, and apothecaries weight. Tower weight fell out of use (due to legal prohibition) centuries ago, and was never used in the United States. Troy weight is still used to weigh precious metals. Apothecaries weight, once used in pharmacy, has been largely replaced by metric measurements. Avoirdupois weight is the primary system of mass in the U.S. customary system.

The Avoirdupois units are legally defined as measures of mass, but the names of these units are sometimes applied to measures of force. For instance, in most contexts, the pound avoirdupois is used as a unit of mass, but in the realm of physics, the term "pound" can represent "pound-force" (a unit of force properly abbreviated as "lbf").

**English Standards of weight **Avoirdupois weight27.344 grains = 1 dram

16 drams = 437 ½ grains

16 ounces = 7000 grains

14 pounds = 1 stone

28 pounds = 1 quarter

4 quarters = 112 pounds

20 hundredweights = 2240 pounds

3 pennies = 5 halfpennies

4 grains = 1 carat

24 grains = 1 pennyweight

20 pennyweights = 480 grains

12 troy ounces = 5760 grains

The ton and hundredweight above are referred to as the short ton, and the short hundredweight, to distinguish them from the British Imperial ton and hundredweight, which are larger and hence are referred to as the long ton and long hundredweight. The long ton has limited use in the United States.

1 long hundredweight = 112 lb ≈ 50.802 kg

1 long ton = 20 long cwt = 2240 lb ≈ 1016.047 kg ≈ 1.016 t **Apothecaries’ weight**

The grain has the same definition as for avoirdupois weight.

1 scruple (s ap) = 20 gr ≈ 1.296 g

1 dram apothecaries (dr ap) = 3 s ap ≈ 3.888 g

1 ounce apothecaries (oz ap) = 1 oz t = 8 dr ap = 480 gr ≈ 31.103 g

1 pound apothecaries (lb ap) = 1 lb t = 12 oz ap = 5760 gr ≈ 373.242 g

The pound and ounce apothecaries are identical to the pound and ounce troy.

**Troy weight**

The grain has the same definition as for Avoirdupois weight.

1 pennyweight (dwt) = 24 gr ≈ 1.555 g

1 ounce troy (oz t) = 20 dwt = 480 gr ≈ 31.103 g

1 pound troy (lb t) = 12 oz t = 5760 gr ≈ 373.242 g

**Metric Standards of weight**

**Weight **1 grain (avoirdupois and troy) = 0.0648 grammes

1 pennyweight = 1.5552 grammes

1 dram (avoirdupois) = 1.772 grammes

1 ounce (16 drams) = 28.350 grammes

1 ounce (troy and apothecary) = 31.1035 grammes

1 pound (16 ounces) = 0.45359 kilogram

1 hundredweight = 112 pounds

1 British ton = 2240 pounds

1 American ton = 2000 pounds

1 milligram = 0.015 grain

1 gramme = 15.432 grains

1 kilogram = 2.20462 pounds

1 quintal = 100 kilograms

1 tone = 0.9842 British ton

1 gallon of water at 62˚F = 10 lb

1 cubic foot water at 60˚F = 62.37 lb

1 cubic inch water at 60˚F = 0.0361 lb

24 hours = 1440 min

12 hour = 720

1 metre = 3 ft 3 in.

**Distinctive Masses of Certain Objects**

**Object Mass (Kg)**

Electron 10-30

Proton 10-27

Uranium atom 10-25

Red blood cell 10-13

Dust Particles 10-9

Rain Drop 10-6

Mosquito 10-6

Grape 10-3

Human 102

Automobile 103

Boeing 747 air craft 106

Moon 1023

Earth 1025

Sun 1030

Milky Way galaxy 1041

Observable Universe 1055

### MOTION:

**Motion:** The motion is said to be one dimensional if it takes place on a straight line path and can be described with the help of only one space coordinate.

The speed is defined as the distance covered by the body per second or the rate of change of distance with time. It is a scalar quantity.

Average speed:

The ratio of the total distance covered and the total time taken. The unit of speed in C.G.S. system is centimeter per second and meter per second in M.K.S. or S.I. system. Thus,

**Average Velocity:** Average velocity is defined as the total displacement divided by total time in a particular direction. Its unit in C.G.S. system is centimeter per second and metre per second in M.K.S. or S.I. system, Thus,

### Energy:

The capacity to do work is called energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It is converted from one form to another.

Energy = mc2

where

m = mass

c = speed of light

### Work:

**Work:** Work is said to be done only when a force produces motion. Work done in moving a body is equal to the force exerted on the body and the distance moved by the body in the direction of force. It is generally denoted by w. Its S.I. unit is J and its dimension is.

Hence, W = Force x Distance

= F. x S.

### MEASUREMENTS UNITS – METER

**Meter:** – Meter is 1,650, 763.73 times the wavelength of the orange light in vacuum emitted by 36K86 (Krypton) in the transition 2p10 to 5d5. The meter is length of the path traveled by the light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second. (1983). It is denoted by m.

Units of Meter: SI

1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)

1 meter = 1000 millimeters (mm)

1 meter = 10 decimeters (dm)

10 meter = 1 decameter (dm)

10 decameter = 1 hectometer (hm)

10 hectometers = 1 kilometer (km)

1 km (kilometer) = 1000m= 10³m

1 hm (hectometer)= 100m= 10² m

1 cm (centimeter) = 10mm = 10-¹m

1 fermi = 1f = 10-15 m

1 angstrom = 1A0 = 10-10 m

1 astronomical Unit = 1 AU (distance of the sun from the Earth =1.496×10-11 m

1 light year = 9.46×1015 m (distance that light travels with velocity of 3 ×108 m s-1 in 1 year)

1 parsec = 3.08×1016 m (distance corresponding to an annual parallax of one second).

** English Standards of length (Imperial) **

**Units of Length**

1 inch = Diameter of halfpenny

7.92 inches = 1 link

12 inches = 1 foot

3 feet = 1 yard

6 feet = 1 fathom

5 ½ yards = 25 links

100 links = 66 feet

220 yards = 40 poles

8 furlongs = 80 chains

6080 feet per hour = 1 Admiralty knot

6080 feet = 1 nautical mile (British)

**Surface **

144 square inches = 1 square foot

9 square feet = 1 square yard

30 ¼ square yards = 1 square pole, rod, or perch

40 square poles = 1 rood

4 roods = 4840 square yards = 1 acre

640 acres = 1 square mile

**Metric Standards and Equivalents**

The following equivalents of metric weights and measures in terms of imperial weights and measure for use in trade were sanctioned by an Order in Council on the 19th May. 1898

**Linear Measure **1 inch = 2.54 centimeters

1 foot = 30.4799 centimeters

1 yard = 0.914399 meter

1 mile = 1.6093 kilometers = 5280 feet

1 chain = 20.1168 meters = 22 yards

1 centimeter = 0.39370113 inch

1 meter = 39.370113 inches = 3.28084 feet = 1.093614 yards.

1 kilometer = 0.62137 mile

1 radian = 57.296 degrees (angular measure)

**Square Measure**

1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimeters

1 square foot = 9.2903 square decimeters

1 square yard = 0.836126 square meter =

1 rood = 10.117 acres = 40 perches

1 acre = 0.40468 hectare

1 square mile = 259 hectares

1 square centimeter = 0.155 square inch.

1 square meter = 10.7639 square feet = 1.1960 square yards.

1 are = 119.6 square yards= 100 square meters

1 hectare = 2.4711 acres = 10,000 square meters

**Cubic Measure **1 cubic inch = 16.387 cubic centimeters.

1 cubic foot = 0.028317 cubic meter = 28.317 litres

1 cubic yard = 0.76455 cubic meter = 764.55 litres

1 gallon = 4.545963 liters = 0.1605 cubic foot

1 U.S.A. gallon = 231 cubic inches = 0.83267 imperial gallon

1 liter = 1.7598 pints = 0.2200 gallon

1 cubic centimeter = 0.061 cubic inch.

1 cubic decimeter = 61.024 cubic inches.

1000 cubic centimeters = 1 liter = 0.0275 bushel

1 cubic meter = 35.3148 cubic feet = 1.307954 cubic yards

### MEASUREMENTS SI UNITS – Time

**Time (second): -** The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770, period of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the to hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. (1967). It is denoted by s.

60 seconds ( secs, " ) = 1 minute.

60 minutes ( mins, ‘ ) = 1 hour

24 hours ( hrs ) = 1 day

7 days ( d ) = 1 week ( wk )

28, 29, 30 or 31 days = 1 month

12 months ( m ) = 1 year

10 years ( y ) = 1 decade

1000 years 1 millenium