Here are list of Physics Formulae (Time, Speed, Mass,Force, Heat,Acceleration ,etc) commonly appearing in high-school and Inter /college introductory physics courses.Learning physics is all about applying concepts to solve problems. This list provides a comprehensive physics formulas so you can easily learn these formulas.
It is defined as the rate of change of velocity.
Acceleration due to gravity:
Angular momentum or moment of momentum L:
Coefficient of Friction:
Coefficient of Thermal conductivity k0
Force =mass ´ acceleration = m ´ a
F = (M) ´(LT-2) = (MLT-2)
So, dimension of mass is 1 and that of length is +1and that of time is –2 in force.
According to Newton universal law of gravitation
Heat is a form of energy.
Q = [ML2T-2]
Kinetic Energy (K.E.):
Heat absorbed per unit mass during changed of state.
Stress : =
Work of energy:
Work = force × displacement = F × s
W =(MLT-2) × (L) = (ML2T-2)
MEASUREMENTS UNITS – MASS
Mass (kilogram): The kilogram is the unit of mass. It is equal to the mass of the International prototype of the kilogram (a platinum-iridium alloy cylinder) kept at BIPM, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres, Paris. It consists of an alloy of 90 % platinum 10 % iridium, and was made in 1879 by George Matthey, of Johnson Matthey, in the form of a cylinder, 39 mm high and 39 mm diameter. It is stored at atmospheric pressure in a specially designed triple bell-jar.
Mass is denoted by kg
For all practical purposes Conventional Mass is related to Mass via the following equation:
Mc is the conventional mass value
M is the mass value
is the density of the test weight material in kg·m-3
Units of mass
There have historically been four different English systems of mass: Tower weight, Troy weight, avoirdupois weight, and apothecaries weight. Tower weight fell out of use (due to legal prohibition) centuries ago, and was never used in the United States. Troy weight is still used to weigh precious metals. Apothecaries weight, once used in pharmacy, has been largely replaced by metric measurements. Avoirdupois weight is the primary system of mass in the U.S. customary system.
The Avoirdupois units are legally defined as measures of mass, but the names of these units are sometimes applied to measures of force. For instance, in most contexts, the pound avoirdupois is used as a unit of mass, but in the realm of physics, the term "pound" can represent "pound-force" (a unit of force properly abbreviated as "lbf").
English Standards of weight
Avoirdupois weight27.344 grains = 1 dram
16 drams = 437 ½ grains
16 ounces = 7000 grains
14 pounds = 1 stone
28 pounds = 1 quarter
4 quarters = 112 pounds
20 hundredweights = 2240 pounds
3 pennies = 5 halfpennies
4 grains = 1 carat
24 grains = 1 pennyweight
20 pennyweights = 480 grains
12 troy ounces = 5760 grains
The ton and hundredweight above are referred to as the short ton, and the short hundredweight, to distinguish them from the British Imperial ton and hundredweight, which are larger and hence are referred to as the long ton and long hundredweight. The long ton has limited use in the United States.
1 long hundredweight = 112 lb ≈ 50.802 kg
1 long ton = 20 long cwt = 2240 lb ≈ 1016.047 kg ≈ 1.016 t
The grain has the same definition as for avoirdupois weight.
1 scruple (s ap) = 20 gr ≈ 1.296 g
1 dram apothecaries (dr ap) = 3 s ap ≈ 3.888 g
1 ounce apothecaries (oz ap) = 1 oz t = 8 dr ap = 480 gr ≈ 31.103 g
1 pound apothecaries (lb ap) = 1 lb t = 12 oz ap = 5760 gr ≈ 373.242 g
The pound and ounce apothecaries are identical to the pound and ounce troy.
The grain has the same definition as for Avoirdupois weight.
1 pennyweight (dwt) = 24 gr ≈ 1.555 g
1 ounce troy (oz t) = 20 dwt = 480 gr ≈ 31.103 g
1 pound troy (lb t) = 12 oz t = 5760 gr ≈ 373.242 g
Metric Standards of weight
1 grain (avoirdupois and troy) = 0.0648 grammes
1 pennyweight = 1.5552 grammes
1 dram (avoirdupois) = 1.772 grammes
1 ounce (16 drams) = 28.350 grammes
1 ounce (troy and apothecary) = 31.1035 grammes
1 pound (16 ounces) = 0.45359 kilogram
1 hundredweight = 112 pounds
1 British ton = 2240 pounds
1 American ton = 2000 pounds
1 milligram = 0.015 grain
1 gramme = 15.432 grains
1 kilogram = 2.20462 pounds
1 quintal = 100 kilograms
1 tone = 0.9842 British ton
1 gallon of water at 62˚F = 10 lb
1 cubic foot water at 60˚F = 62.37 lb
1 cubic inch water at 60˚F = 0.0361 lb
24 hours = 1440 min
12 hour = 720
1 metre = 3 ft 3 in.
Distinctive Masses of Certain Objects
Object Mass (Kg)
Uranium atom 10-25
Red blood cell 10-13
Dust Particles 10-9
Rain Drop 10-6
Boeing 747 air craft 106
Milky Way galaxy 1041
Observable Universe 1055
Motion: The motion is said to be one dimensional if it takes place on a straight line path and can be described with the help of only one space coordinate.
The speed is defined as the distance covered by the body per second or the rate of change of distance with time. It is a scalar quantity.
The ratio of the total distance covered and the total time taken. The unit of speed in C.G.S. system is centimeter per second and meter per second in M.K.S. or S.I. system. Thus,
Average Velocity: Average velocity is defined as the total displacement divided by total time in a particular direction. Its unit in C.G.S. system is centimeter per second and metre per second in M.K.S. or S.I. system, Thus,
The capacity to do work is called energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It is converted from one form to another.
Energy = mc2
m = mass
c = speed of light
Work: Work is said to be done only when a force produces motion. Work done in moving a body is equal to the force exerted on the body and the distance moved by the body in the direction of force. It is generally denoted by w. Its S.I. unit is J and its dimension is.
Hence, W = Force x Distance
= F. x S.
MEASUREMENTS UNITS – METER
Meter: – Meter is 1,650, 763.73 times the wavelength of the orange light in vacuum emitted by 36K86 (Krypton) in the transition 2p10 to 5d5. The meter is length of the path traveled by the light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second. (1983). It is denoted by m.
Units of Meter: SI
1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)
1 meter = 1000 millimeters (mm)
1 meter = 10 decimeters (dm)
10 meter = 1 decameter (dm)
10 decameter = 1 hectometer (hm)
10 hectometers = 1 kilometer (km)
1 km (kilometer) = 1000m= 10³m
1 hm (hectometer)= 100m= 10² m
1 cm (centimeter) = 10mm = 10-¹m
1 fermi = 1f = 10-15 m
1 angstrom = 1A0 = 10-10 m
1 astronomical Unit = 1 AU (distance of the sun from the Earth =1.496×10-11 m
1 light year = 9.46×1015 m (distance that light travels with velocity of 3 ×108 m s-1 in 1 year)
1 parsec = 3.08×1016 m (distance corresponding to an annual parallax of one second).
English Standards of length (Imperial)
Units of Length
1 inch = Diameter of halfpenny
7.92 inches = 1 link
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
6 feet = 1 fathom
5 ½ yards = 25 links
100 links = 66 feet
220 yards = 40 poles
8 furlongs = 80 chains
6080 feet per hour = 1 Admiralty knot
6080 feet = 1 nautical mile (British)
144 square inches = 1 square foot
9 square feet = 1 square yard
30 ¼ square yards = 1 square pole, rod, or perch
40 square poles = 1 rood
4 roods = 4840 square yards = 1 acre
640 acres = 1 square mile
Metric Standards and Equivalents
The following equivalents of metric weights and measures in terms of imperial weights and measure for use in trade were sanctioned by an Order in Council on the 19th May. 1898
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 foot = 30.4799 centimeters
1 yard = 0.914399 meter
1 mile = 1.6093 kilometers = 5280 feet
1 chain = 20.1168 meters = 22 yards
1 centimeter = 0.39370113 inch
1 meter = 39.370113 inches = 3.28084 feet = 1.093614 yards.
1 kilometer = 0.62137 mile
1 radian = 57.296 degrees (angular measure)
1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimeters
1 square foot = 9.2903 square decimeters
1 square yard = 0.836126 square meter =
1 rood = 10.117 acres = 40 perches
1 acre = 0.40468 hectare
1 square mile = 259 hectares
1 square centimeter = 0.155 square inch.
1 square meter = 10.7639 square feet = 1.1960 square yards.
1 are = 119.6 square yards= 100 square meters
1 hectare = 2.4711 acres = 10,000 square meters
1 cubic inch = 16.387 cubic centimeters.
1 cubic foot = 0.028317 cubic meter = 28.317 litres
1 cubic yard = 0.76455 cubic meter = 764.55 litres
1 gallon = 4.545963 liters = 0.1605 cubic foot
1 U.S.A. gallon = 231 cubic inches = 0.83267 imperial gallon
1 liter = 1.7598 pints = 0.2200 gallon
1 cubic centimeter = 0.061 cubic inch.
1 cubic decimeter = 61.024 cubic inches.
1000 cubic centimeters = 1 liter = 0.0275 bushel
1 cubic meter = 35.3148 cubic feet = 1.307954 cubic yards
MEASUREMENTS SI UNITS – Time
Time (second): - The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770, period of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the to hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. (1967). It is denoted by s.
60 seconds ( secs, " ) = 1 minute.
60 minutes ( mins, ‘ ) = 1 hour
24 hours ( hrs ) = 1 day
7 days ( d ) = 1 week ( wk )
28, 29, 30 or 31 days = 1 month
12 months ( m ) = 1 year
10 years ( y ) = 1 decade
1000 years 1 millenium